DApp Tutorial - Wiki Parity Ethereum Documentation

This is the ninth part of the Dapp Tutorial. We assume you’re familiar with the content of the past chapters.

⟵ 8th Part 10th Part ⟶

Deploying a Contract

For our penultimate trick, we will introduce the ability to not just use, but also deploy the contract from our fledgling dapp. Deploying a contract is very similar to any other kind of transaction; we use a slightly different API (bonds.deployContract) in order to conveniently return us with a Contract object rather than just a transaction receipt as with the standard bonds.post API.

There is backwards compatibility, so we can use the same TransactionProgressBadge in order to display the progress of the deployment transaction as it gets signed and confirmed.

1. Split and Prop

Before we can begin in earnest, we will need to refactor some of our existing code. Whereas at the moment, our dapp heads straight into the “voting” mode we actually want to create a new mode of operation where we are deploying the underlying contract. To do this, we will rename the class App to Counter (and remove the export functionality) and introduce a new exported class App.

The new class App will, for now, just render() a Counter object. However, the one key change we’ll make here is to pass in the Counter contract as a prop named contract. This has a two repercussions since we’re working in React. Firstly, we should move the definitions of this.voted, this.prevVote and this.prevVotes from the constructor into componentWillReceiveProps and componentWillMount, so that they respond to changes in the prop value.

Secondly, rather than storing the Counter contract object in App’s ‘this.counter we’ll place it in the more correct this.state.counter, so that should it change (which it will, but not quite yet), it is reflected in the browser through forcing a new render().

Here’s the final code for class App:

export class App extends React.Component {
	constructor () {
		super();
		this.state = { counter: bonds.makeContract('0x7aC77Cb854E064f22E747F40b90FE6D6Bc1e3197', CounterABI) };
	}
	render () {
		return (<div>
			<Counter contract={this.state.counter} />
		</div>);
	}
}

The render function of the new Counter class is mostly equivalent to the same function in the original App class. The only change is to replace the two lines that use this.counter to instead use this.props.contract, which is now being passed from App. The two props lines for the VoteOption element votes and vote now read:

votes={this.props.contract.votes(i)}
vote={() => this.setState({tx: this.props.contract.vote(i)})}

The constructor portion of the new Counter class is a little different from the App class. It now reads:

constructor() {
	super();
	this.state = { tx: null };
}
componentWillMount () { this.componentWillReceiveProps(this.props); }
componentWillReceiveProps (props) {
	this.voted = this.props.contract.hasVoted(bonds.me);
	this.prevVote = this.props.contract.Voted({ who: bonds.me });
	this.prevVotes = this.props.contract.Voted({ who: bonds.accounts });
}

See how the bonds’ setup have been moved out of the constructor (inert to prop changes) into the React APIs functions which execute along with prop changes.

With these changes, the dapp will remain essentially the same, however the ground is now prepared for introducing the deployment mode.

2. The Real Deal

Counter class is ready for our needs; our efforts can now be concentrated on the App class, into which we’ll add an initial mode for deploying the contract.

One of the first things we need to remove is the hard-coded contract address. Furthermore, when we do deploy the contract, we’ll need to track the transaction which is doing it. So we will swap out the state initialiser line in our constructor for one that initialises both the counter and a deployment tx to null:

this.state = { tx: null, counter: null };

We’ll also add a deploy function, whose job it is to sort out the deployment, once the user initiates it. Since we’ll need to call it from an event handler, we’ll pre-bind it to this in the constructor:

this.deploy = this.deploy.bind(this);

For the new deploy() function, we’ll use the deployContract API to create a new transaction. It requires the contract’s bytecode (which we’ll place in a const CounterCode next) and the ABI (which we already have in CounterABI). The function begins thus:

deploy () {
	let tx = bonds.deployContract(CounterCode, CounterABI);

We will record this transaction in our state so we can feed it into a progress badge later:

	this.setState({tx});

Finally, and crucially, we’ll set our state’s counter key once the contract has been deployed. This makes use an API of Bond that we haven’t seen yet: done. This is somewhat similar to Bond.then, except that unlike .then which is called as soon as the Bond takes a value, .done is called only once it has taken a value from which it will never again change.

In the context of contract deployment this means it has been finalised. The object value here contains two keys: confirmed (which is the receipt of the transaction which deployed the contract) and deployed (which is the final contract object itself). We will record the latter in our state:

	tx.done(s => this.setState({ counter: s.deployed }));
}

This leaves us little to do except render a button if the contract hasn’t yet been deployed. Our render function thus becomes:

return (<div>
	{!!this.state.counter
		? <Counter contract={this.state.counter} />
		: <div>
			<BButton content='Deploy' onClick={this.deploy}/>
			<TransactionProgressLabel value={this.state.tx}/>
		</div>
	}
</div>);

To decide whether we have yet deployed a contract, we look at the counter item in state. If it coerces to true then we know we can go ahead and display the Counter component as before. Otherwise, we’ll need to deploy the contract and instead display the usual combination of button (with the onClick handler) and a progress badge (picking up on this.state.tx).

One final thing is to include the contract’s byte code. You’ll need to either get your own byte code from the compiler (as we did when we deployed the contract in the first place), or alternatively, just use this:

const CounterCode = '\
0x6060604052341561000c57fe5b5b61017d8061001c6000396000f300606060405263fffff\
fff60e060020a6000350416630121b93f811461003757806309eef43e1461004c5780635df8\
13301461007c575bfe5b341561003f57fe5b61004a6004356100a1565b005b341561005457f\
e5b610068600160a060020a036004351661012a565b60408051911515825251908190036020\
0190f35b341561008457fe5b61008f60043561013f565b60408051918252519081900360200\
190f35b600160a060020a03331660009081526001602052604090205460ff16156100c85760\
006000fd5b60008181526020818152604080832080546001908101909155600160a060020a0\
3331680855292819052818420805460ff191690911790555183927f4d99b957a2bc29a30ebd\
96a7be8e68fe50a3c701db28a91436490b7d53870ca491a35b50565b6001602052600090815\
2604090205460ff1681565b600060208190529081526040902054815600a165627a7a723058\
20ef4d0d5cd232790fab92fcd67c633d228600212c1f337d0c68622f19f106c7fc0029';

Try it now and you’ll see a deploy button waiting:

image

After clicking, it’ll prompt you with a transaction to deploy the contract and eventually show you a blank voting tally, ready for you to cast the first vote!

image

3. Consolidating

Since we have the TransactButton component, we may as well use it.

First, we won’t need to maintain the status of the transaction which is deploying the contract. Remove the tx: null mapping in the constructor, so that line now reads:

this.state = { counter: null };

Next, the deploy function no longer needs to setState({tx}) since we’re not tracking the transaction; remove that line, too. The deploy function will however need to return the transaction Bond, since TransactButton will need it to track; end the function with return tx, so it now reads:

deploy () {
	let tx = bonds.deployContract(CounterCode, CounterABI);
	tx.done(s => this.setState({ counter: s.deployed }));
	return tx;
}

You can remove the BButton and TransactionProgressLabel tags and replace them by the single tag:

<TransactButton content='Deploy' tx={this.deploy} statusText/>

Notice we’re passing this.deploy in the tx prop in lieu of a straight transaction; in case you wish to handle the submission of the transaction yourself, you can pass it a function which does that and will be called when the button is clicked. We’re also passing the statusText prop which puts a text string in the progress label rather than just an icon.

Finally, don’t forget to import the component:

import {InputBond, HashBond, BButton, TransactionProgressLabel, AccountIcon, TransactButton} from 'parity-reactive-ui';

And that’s it!

4. What about Next Time?

This is great for now, but when we reload or return to this page, it will have forgotten the contract. We’ll use the browser’s local storage to ensure that it persists between sessions.

In the deploy function, change the tx.done() line to store the contract’s address in window.localStorage:

tx.done(s => {
	this.setState({ tx: null, counter: s.deployed });
	window.localStorage.counter = s.deployed.address;
});

Secondly, in the constructor, change the this.state = line to ensure that we recreate the contract at preference from any address stored in local storage; for this we’ll use our old friend bonds.makeContract:

this.state = { counter: window.localStorage.counter
	? bonds.makeContract(window.localStorage.counter, CounterABI)
	: null };

The next time you deploy in that browser session, it will be last (at least until you reset it in the next tutorial!).

5. And What about Dave?

So this is great for us, but as soon as we want to give it to someone else to vote, we run into an issue; they have no way of arriving at the vote we deployed. Let’s also allow the user to enter the address of a vote instead of forcing them to deploy a new one.

First we’ll create a basic Bond in the constructor which will hold the address of the contract that the user entered. This goes right after super():

this.addr = new Bond;

Next we’ll set things up so that the very first value that is placed in it is used (and saved) as our counter contract’s address:

this.addr.then(v => {
	window.localStorage.counter = v;
	let counter = bonds.makeContract(v, CounterABI);
	this.setState({ tx: null, counter });
});

Now we just have to ensure that the Bond only gets set when the user has entered the full address of a valid instance of the Counter contract. Luckily the TextBond component has a validator function allowing us to exactly this.

Before we can realistically be able to detect counter contract instances, we’ll need to know what code the contract has on the chain. This is related to, but not the same as, the byte code with which it was initialised. The code hash for my contract (compiled with solidity 0.4.10 with optimisations) is:

const CounterCodeHash = '0x10d2b44a953ecf30231a87c541df5d640b43a30d8ec9a6ed95e411675d8aff42';

Yours may be different. To figure it out, use the JS line in any bonds-enabled environment where ADDRESS is the address of a pre-deployed counter contract:

bonds.code(ADDRESS).map(Api.util.sha3).then(console.log)

Now to the code. First, we need to import the Api object from @parity/parity.js:

import {Api} from '@parity/parity.js';

After the button in the render function, we will add the following:

<span style={{margin: '2em'}}>OR</span>
<InputBond bond={this.addr} validator={v => v.startsWith('0x') && v.length == 42 && bonds.code(v).map(_ => parity.api.util.sha3(_) == CounterCodeHash) ? v : null}/>

The first line just splits the button from the text input. The second is our input for counter contract addresses. The TextBond we have seen before in the very first tutorial about Bonds. We have introduced a custom validator prop here, which first makes sure the string form TextBond is well-formed and then checks to make sure that the hash of the code at that address is what we would expect from a Counter contract. Only then is it valid and does it get set to this.addr.

The only thing that is left is to ensure the address of a deployed contract is visible so it can be communicated. Right at the end of the Counter render’s outer div, you can insert this final element:

<div style={{fontSize: 'small'}}>
	Using contract at {this.props.contract.address}.
</div>

You can now reload and set your current Counter contract’s address like here:

image

To try it out, first clear your local storage (in Chrome open dev console and head to the ‘127.0.0.1’ frame, then enter delete localStorage.counter). On reload, you should be presented with the option to deploy or to enter an address.

image

Once you complete the address, it will change into the voting window. Hurrah!

Next, up we’ll alter the contract a little to require a signed statement prior to voting.


10th Part ⟶